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“Three high one low”in NS

  “Three high one low”in NS

  “Three high one low ” refers to high protein in urine, high edema, hyperlipemia, hypoproteinemia. It is the basic feature of NS.

  First, high protein in urine. This is the main clinical manifestation of patients with NS, as well as the basic pathologic mechanism of NS. High protein in urine refers to the proteinuria >3.5g/d for adults. In normal condition, glomerular filtration membrane has the molecular barrier and electrostatic barrier, which will keep the protein in the vessels. While if kidney has some problems, the two barriers will be injured, and the protein will be leaked out in urine. Based on this, heavier burden in glomerular and other factors will also quicken the excretion of protein.

  Second, hypoproteinemia. It refers to the plasma-albumin <30g/l. More albumin disappear through urine in NS, which will promote the synthesis of metabolic liver albumin and renal tubular decomposition. When there is no enough liver albumin in the synthesis, hypoproteinemia will occur. Otherwise, inappetence, low intake of protein are also causes for the hypoproteinemia.

  Third, high edema. When one suffers NS, hypoproteinemia and low osmotic pressure in plasma will make the water flow into tissues, which is the basic reason of edema.

  Fourth, hyperlipemia. The reason of hyperlipemia in NS is still not clear. It is usually coexisting with hypoproteinemia.